Gramineae, T. A. Companion sterile spikelet glumes Themeda. It is a significant species in temperate grasslands in Australia, a habitat considered to be endangered or threatened in various parts of the country. geniculate; 25–70 mm long overall; with twisted column. If the seed is broadcast then it should be lightly covered with harrows. Fertile spikelets sessile; 1 in the appears in other Kew resources: IPNI - The International Plant Names Index. Indian Distribution. by ; Dr. Chandra Barooah & Iftikher Ahmed (2014) Assam Science Technology and Environment Council. > themeda triandra plantnet General themeda triandra plantnet. Kangaroo grass is a tufted perennial up to about 1.5 m tall with individual tussocks up to 0.5 m across. Most temperate woodland understorey species compete poorly against exotic weeds, the possible exceptions being the dominant grasses, Kangaroo Grass (Themeda triandra, hereafter Themeda) and Poa species Tussock‐grasses. Asia-tropical: India, Indo-China, Malesia, and Papuasia. Western Assam. Spatheole lanceolate; 1.5–3.5 cm long; scarious; Themeda triandra is a tufted perennial grass; the local species in Townsville is 30–100 cm tall. Comments: Themeda is a very palatable grass when it is green and is preferentially grazed by kangaroos as well as domesticated livestock. Distribution: Africa, SE Asia, Australia. glume muticous. © Copyright The Board of Trustees, Royal Botanic Companion sterile Companion sterile spikelets pedicelled; 2 in the cluster. -veined. spikelets on each. Aegypt.-Arab. fertile florets; without rhachilla extension. At this time, winter plants will tend to overshadow the semi-dormant T. triandra. Competition from native Poa sp. Today this grass is often found on roadsides or in situations where periodic fire is a common disturbance. obliquely. This species is probably the most recognisable member of the grass family in Australia. T. triandra seedlings develop relatively slowly following germination. T. triandra has an extraordinarily wide distribution range from the mountains of New Guinea to Tasmania and from the east to the west of the Australian continent. Themeda triandra is found across Asia, Africa, Australia, and the Pacific. - kangaroo grass, red grass, rooigras - Africa (from Morocco to KwaZulu-Natal), Asia (from Yemen to Japan to Maluku), Australia, New Guinea Themeda trichiata S.L.Chen & T.D.Zhuang - Guangxi, Yunnan, Hainan Themeda unica S.L.Chen & T.D.Zhuang - Anhui, Zhejiang As Themeda triandra hispida and T. triandra punctata Lightfoot, C. (1975) . One of the most widespread and conspicuous grasses in Victoria, formerly dominant over vast areas of the basalt plains west of Melbourne, … Within these regions it is found across a broad range of climates, geological substrates and ecosystems. Approaching optimum harvest time is associated with a change in crop colour from greenish to yellowish brown. Please cite this publication as detailed in How to T. triandra is the only species occurring in Africa, but it … Stapf: ... Themeda triandra Forssk. western Indian ocean. The ligule (Ligule - a membrane or hairs found on the inner (adaxial) surface of the leaf-blade/sheath junction) is a rim of hairs and the leaves are folded in the bud. Synonym(s) Heterotypic =Themeda triandra var. The mulch is spread evenly on the ground immediately after harvest, or up to winter and left for about 6 months for the seeds to drop out and presumably penetrate the soil because of the hygroscopic (Hygroscopic - responds (twists or opens) to moisture changes) awns. Fertile lemma linear; hyaline; without keel; 1 Principal lemma awn apical; T. triandra has been successfully established over relatively small areas by spreading a kangaroo grass mulch collected with a forage harvester when the seeds are ripe. Br.) 6–11 mm long; falling entire; deciduous with accessory branch structures. awn hispidulous. Tufted perennial, grass-like or herb, 0.3-2 m high. Leaf-blades 10–30 cm long; 1–8 mm This plant has no children Legal Status. The Plants Database includes the following 6 species of Themeda . fertile lemma; shiny. cluster. T. triandra occurs in both grasslands and grassy woodlands as well as under grassy forests. Here, mowing or grazing can assist in controlling this competition at this time. Culms erect; 30–200 cm In southern Australia weed control in late winter/early spring appears to be critical in the survival of newly established plants. long; as long as fertile; separately deciduous. grasses leading to a non-Themeda triandra dominated grassland Currently the distribution is been depleted by coastal development. High drought tolerance; High heat tolerance callus linear; 2–3 mm long; 2-toothed. Themeda triandra is considered by some to be two species, the African and Asian species T. triandra and a separate Australian species Themeda australis. Australia and New Zealand. Stapf, Themeda triandra Forssk. It is often common in areas where moisture collects and grazing is light, such as along roadsides or railway lines. (0 ratings) 0 ... Themeda triandra Forssk. The inflorescence is leafy and up to 35cm long; each inflorescence branch is subtended by a spathe (leafy bract). Then if the mulch is burnt in late winter while the soil is still moist, then the seeds will germinate as the soil warms up in the spring. oblong; 0.5 mm long. var. burchellii (Hack. About 50 g of seed/100 m drill row will give this seed density. In Australia, it is found in all states and territories. Asia. Posted by November 30, 2020 November 30, 2020. Common Veld Grasses of Rhodesia Natural Resources Board of Rhodesia Pages 112 - 113. Themeda triandra Forssk. Lemma apex entire; awned; 1 -awned. Distribution maps indicate current and historic locations where species have been sighted. 178 (1775). Inflorescence composed of racemes; terminal and axillary; subtended by a spatheole; enclosed. (1783) =Themeda triandra var. In Australia it is commonly known as kangaroo grass and in East Africa and South Africa it is known as red grass and red oat grass or as rooigras in Afrikaans. The journals of the early explorers and settlers make frequent reference to this grass. =Themeda triandra var. HABIT Perennial; caespitose. oblong; 3 -veined. Lower glume apex obtuse. Weed control is easiest in areas with low soil fertility so that the use of fertilisers in the establishment of kangaroo grass stands is not recommended. Life form: Grass/ Tussock. spatheole; enclosed. In total, there are 27 recognised Themeda species with both annual and … Was formerly the dominant plant. Overseas it is found in Africa, Asia and the Pacific. Lower glume oblong; 1 length of spikelet; coriaceous; dark Williamson. T. triandra seeds mostly germinate in mid summer, but will still germinate in early autumn. wide. Kew. In other circumstances the addition of fertiliser appears not to benefit T. triandra. However, for seed production there is some evidence to suggest that the addition of low rates of nitrogen (50 kg/ha) can increase seed heads by 45%. There seems to be little association between abundance of T. triandra and a specific soil type. Themeda triandra is The widespread Kangaroo Grass, Themeda triandra, is one of the most recognisable members of the grass family (Poaceae) in Australia. Fishing closures, restrictions and permits, Volunteer non-commercial kangaroo shooting, NSW Hunting Stakeholder Consultation Group, Zoonoses - Animal diseases that can infect people, Forest contractor training and certification scheme, Grassed up - guidelines for revegetating with Australian native grasses, Astrebla pectinata (Barley Mitchell grass), Austrodanthonia bipartita (Wallaby grass), Austrodanthonia richardsonii (Wallaby grass), Dichanthium sericeum (Queensland bluegrass), Microlaena stipoides (Microlaena or Weeping grass), Paspalidium jubiflorum (Warrego summer grass). Provides authoritative information on the flora of Western Australia. long. The seeds that follow are also a beautiful feature of this grass. INFLORESCENCE Synflorescence compound; fasciculate; 10–30 cm long. INFLORESCENCE Synflorescence compound; fasciculate; 10–30 cm Distribution and Habitat. FLORETS Basal sterile florets barren; without significant palea. It does not do well under heavy grazing pressure, but benefits from occasional fire. spikelet lemmas 2; enclosed by glumes. Rhachis fragile at the nodes. Cite Version: 3rd February 2016. Introduced in New Zealand. Fl. The website also provides access to a database and images of herbarium specimens found at the University of South Florida and other herbaria. Camus =Anthistiria imberbis Retz. Spikelet callus linear; 2–4 mm long; bearded; base pungent; attached 2002 ... Themeda triandra Forssk. Where T. triandra plants are established as feature tussocks in a garden, little maintenance is necessary apart from weed control. It is very important to protect them from competition from annual weeds during this establishment phase. There are about 30 species worldwide with about 5 being found in Australia. Spikelets in threes (basal paired). Brief Description Grazyna Paczkowska, Monday 20 December 1993. burchellii (Hack.) Primary dormancy will usually break down slowly with storage periods of up to 12 months or more. Clayton, M. Vorontsova, K.T. Themeda triandra is probably one of the most widespread of all Australian native grasses. Ligule a ciliolate membrane. Older leaves tend to have a red/brown appearance. Cope. AVH is a collaborative project of the state, Commonwealth and territory herbaria, developed under the auspices of the Council of Heads of Australasian Herbaria (CHAH), representing the major Australian collections. =*Themeda triandra var. The spikelets (Spikelet - consists of one or more florets and is the basic unit of the inflorescence in grasses) are clustered with several sterile spikelets surrounding a single fertile spikelet that bears a large, black, geniculate and twisted awn (Awn - an elongated bristle-like appendage attached to the apex, back or base of the glume, lemma or palea). Autumn is generally considered the best sowing time as soil surfaces tend not to dry out as quickly as they do in spring. Shares. - Search In eastern Australia flowering occurs throughout summer from December to late April. It is therefore best to eliminate weed problems before sowing this grass. Themeda triandra 1 / 3 Next. It is very palatable when young, but has only a moderate nutritive value (2.8 to 12.4% crude protein). Brush harvesting has been successful but the actual seed yields are low compared with the amount of trash mostly consisting of the sterile spikelets. Pacific: southwestern. Family: Poaceae (Grass) Synonym: Themeda australis. Themeda arguens Christmas grass Themeda japonica . Themeda triandra. – kangaroo grass Subordinate Taxa. Forage harvesters have also been used to successfully harvest kangaroo grass seed when the harvested material containing the seed is to be spread as a mulch rather than for the preparation of pure seed samples. Seeds generally begin to ripen in early December depending on spring rainfall and temperature conditions. World-wide, there are 18 species of Themeda occurring in the tropics and subtropics of the Old World, mainly in Asia. Endangered Status: DEPI Advisory List: FERTILE SPIKELETS Spikelets comprising 1 basal sterile florets; 1 In this study, we assess the climate resilience of Themeda triandra, a foundational species and the most widespread plant in Australia, by assessing the relative contributions of spatial, environmental and ploidy factors to contemporary genomic variation. forming an involucre about the fertile; with both pairs arising at about the The attractive fo… If material has been harvested with a forage harvester to be used as seed containing mulch then cleaning is not necessary. Kangaroo grass can still be seen in remnant plains grasslands and sclerophyll, redgum and box woodlands as well as open grassy forests. The attractive foliage and seed heads, its adaptability and low maintenance requirement has prompted growing interest in its use from landscape architects. A well filled caryopsis will be 75% dark brown when ready for harvest and so when all the mature seed and seed heads are dark brown the optimum harvest time has passed. Themedais a genus of grasses occurring in Australia, Asia and Africa. spikelet glumes smooth, or tuberculate; glabrous, or pubescent, or pilose; lower other data sources for Themeda triandra, Note - this takes you off Themeda triandra is a very hardy, evergreen, tall, tufted grass with foliage in many shades of green that turn reddish when older. Themeda triandra is a perennial tussock grass endemic to Africa, Australia and Asia. (GPWG 2001) : Subfamily Panicoideae. Upper glume Companion sterile spikelets well-developed; male; elliptic; 6–14 mm ... Themeda triandra “Mingo” is a ground covering form with blue foliage and will reach a height of 20 centimetres with a … Themeda triandra. In Australia, it is found in all states and territories. trachyspathea Gooss. Kangaroo grass appears to be most common in situations where grazing disturbance is low, water runs on areas and where fires occur periodically. Ligule a ciliolate membrane. Click below on a thumbnail map or name for species profiles. Themeda triandra Forssk. Most T. triandra seed samples have some level of dormancy. ... Themeda anathera . Palea absent or minute. tropical, northeast tropical, east tropical, southern tropical, south, and This dormancy can usually be broken by subjecting dry seeds to diurnal alternating temperatures of 20°C–60°C for about a month. of our website Use your browser's back button to return to this page, W.D. The leaves are up to 50 cm long and 3 mm wide and the leaf blades bear sparse hairs. 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