S. asper and S. oleraceus are applied worldwide in folk medicine as stomachic, aperitive and diuretic. The base of the leaf surrounds the stem. 2: 794. Sonchus asper is an annual or biennial herb sometimes reaching a height of 200 cm. It has a short taproot, and deeply lobed leaves. spiny sowthistle. The upper stems terminate in clusters of 1 to 5 composite flowers on rather short stalks. The stems have rather conspicuous longitudinal veins and are usually hairless, although occasionally the upper stems and flowering stalks have a few hairs. Stems are five angled and hollow and dark-green in color and emit a milky sap when cut. In Hawai’i, however, I have never seen it out of control. The seeds ripen from July to September. In both species the leaves clasp the stem by their ‘auricles’. Sonchus asper. All leaves are coarsely toothed with soft spines and are shiny waxy green on the upper surface. The leaves are cauline and basal. asper L, S oleraceus L and S tenerrimus L) from different locations in the south east of Spain were carried out. Sonchus asper ← → Synonyms (former Scientific Names): Sonchus nymanii . It has a short taproot, and deeply lobed leaves. Brit. prickly sowthistle. Sonchus asper leaf and stem The three common ones are Sonchus oleraceus, (SON-kus oh-ler-AY-see-us) Sonchus Asper (SON-kus ASS-pur) and Sonchus arvensis (SON-kus ar-VEN-sis.) Image of flower, yellow, nature - 109036857 The leaves are consumed raw as a salad or cooked as a spinach. perennial sowthistle. Suitable pH: acid, neutral and basic (alkaline) soils. Mémoires de la Société Linnéenne de Normandie 25: 1–335. pungens can be found especially in urban areas. Upright, smooth, stems branched sparsely above. Its relationships to the similar S. gigas Boulos from Africa are in … Th… N.C. Annual sowthistle is a summer annual plant which can grow up to 5 feet in height. The foliage contains a milky latex. Photo about Sonchus asper flower plant leaves. NC State University and N.C. A&T State University work in tandem, along with federal, state and local governments, to Sonchus arvensis: Spiny sowthistle is primarily a weed of landscapes, winter small grains, pastures, hay fields, orchards, and roadsides. On shorter plants, they are rather crowded together on the stems, even where the composite flowers occur. 2. The base of each flower is covered with dull green bracts and is it rather short. Its edible leaves make a palatable and nutritious leaf vegetable. One plant will produce several flat-topped arrays of flower heads, each head containing numerous yellow ray flowers but no disc flowers. "Sonchus" is the Greek name for sow thistle and … Native Range: Eurasia Invasive range: In every US State and most of Canada Habitat: Common in disturbed sites, also found in pastures, hay fields, dunes, riparian areas, orchards, and wetlands. It is found throughout the United States. It can bolt upward and form flowerheads very quickly during the summer. PLANT PART USED: Leaves, stems, juice, root. [12], Species of flowering plant in the daisy family Asteraceae, De la Barra, N. 1997. Sonchus asper is a major problem in winter crops and in tillage systems throughout southern Australia, South-East Queensland and Northern New South Wales. It is not frost tender. Leaves and stem: Upper leaves are up to 6 inches long with a rounded, widely lobed (auriculate) base semi-clasping the stem. One plant will produce several flat-topped arrays of flower heads, each head containing numerous yellow ray flowers but no disc flowers. Cooperative Extension prohibits discrimination and harassment on the basis of race, color, national origin, age, sex (including pregnancy), disability, religion, sexual orientation, gender identity, and veteran status. Prickly Sowthistle typically grows in full sun, moist to slightly dry conditions, and different kinds of soil, including loam, clay-loam, and shallow gravelly soil. The species is hermaphrodite (has both male and female organs) and is pollinated by Bees, flies. Sonchus oleraceus L was named by Carolus Linnaeus in 1753 in his "Species Plantarum." The proximate composition, as well as the content of mineral elements (Na, K, Ca, Mg, P, Fe, Cu, Zn and Mn), fatty acids, vitamin C, carotenoids and oxalic acid were determined. Spiny sowthistle is a winter annual that is actually in the sunflower family and not a true thistle. STATUS IN HAWAI’I: Alien. Sonchus asperbelongs to the family Asteraceae commonly known as Peeli dudhi in Hindi and Prickly sow thistle in English. They are respectfully the common sow thistle, the spiny sow thistle and the field sow thistle. Sonchus asper is an annual or biennial herb sometimes reaching a height of 200 cm. The plant is not frost tender and flowers from June to August. 1753. Abstract. Annuals or biennials, 10–120(–200+) cm. An annual that may reach as much as 6 feet in height with bluish-green leaves and stems that emit a milky sap when cut. In a garden setting, be careful not to let this plant go to seed. The leaves are alternate, glabrous, oblong to lanceolate in outline, with lobed and prickly toothed margins. Les Composées de Madagascar. Also, the leaf margins of spiny sowthistle are much more spiny or prickly than those of annual sowthistle. The upper leaves are less lobed but have spiny edges. Gayana, Botany 42: 1–157. The root system consists of a stout taproot. The commoner of the two, the smooth sow-thistle, Sonchus oleraceus has leaves that are weakly and softly spiny, and usually deeply lobed, while those of the rough sow-thistle Sonchus asper are more aggressively spiny, less lobed, or unlobed, and the upper surface is shiny green. Pl. PREPARATION OF MEDICINE: Infused or decocted. Sonchus asper is a ANNUAL growing to 0.5 m (1ft 8in). [7][8][9][10][11], It is found in cultivated soil, pastures, roadsides, edges of yards, vacant lots, construction sites, waste areas and in grasslands. Sonchus has the questionable distinction of being considered one of the world’s worst weeds, a pest in more than 55 countries. It is found throughout the United States. Spiny-leaf sow-thistle, laiteron rude Sonchus oleraceus Linnaeus var. Stem: Stem Color: Green Purple/Lavender Stem Is Aromatic: No Stem Form: Straight Stem Surface: Leaves are lanceolate to oblanceolate in shape, hairless and dark green in color with pale white to purple veins. The species is hermaphrodite (has both male and female organs) and is pollinated by Bees, hoverflies. Prickly Sowthistle typically grows in full sun, moist to slightly dry conditions, and different kinds of soil, including loam, clay-loam, and shallow gravelly soil. Description: Leaves are lanceolate, with wavy margins, covered in spines on both the margins and beneath, and bluish-green in color. The blooming period can occur from late spring to early fall, and usually lasts about a month for a colony of plants. Suitable pH: acid, neutral and basic (alkaline) soils. Spiny sowthistle is primarily a weed of pastures, hay fields, landscapes and roadsides. It is an herbaceous annual or winter annual plant that contains white sticky latex with short taproot which is bushy with many lateral roots. Resembles Sonchus asper but has generally softer, less deeply divided leaves, larger cypselas and larger pollen grains. Cooperative Extension, which staffs local offices in all 100 counties and with the Eastern Band of Cherokee Indians. It blooms from late spring through early fall and reproduces by means of seeds. suppressing S. asper and S. arvensis in Canada. They are also a good animal feed. Leaves have soft, spiny toothed edges that may be wavy, are hairless, mostly with small rounded lobes at the base that clasp the stem. Leaves are up to 10 inches long and 3½ inches across, but more commonly they are about half this size or less. Spiny Sowthistle (Sonchus asper) is very similar in appearance, however this species has rounded lobes that clasp the stem whereas annual sowthistle has distinctly pointed lobes. Sonchus species have a long record of being used as leafy vegetables in many parts of the world. Identifying Characteristics. Catálogo de la Flora Vascular de Chile. The achenes are flat, spindle-shaped, hairless, and have several longitudinal ribs. Each lower leaf has deep triangular lobes. with spiny leaves and yellow flowers resembling those of the dandelion. Apart from the species’ prevailing entire-leaved name variety (var. Sonchus oleraceus is an annual herb, upto 4 ft. in height. 1985. They are distributed by the wind. The stems are dark green in color (sometimes tinted with a reddish-purple tinge). The base of the leaf surrounds the stem. These are S. arvensis, perennial sow thistle, and the two annual species S. oleraceus, common sow thistle, and S. asper, prickly sow thistle. Sonchus asper is an annual herb considered native to Europe, Africa and Asia that has … It is not frost tender. Sonchus oleraceus is a BIENNIAL growing to 1 m (3ft 3in). with spiny leaves and yellow flowers resembling those of the dandelion. They then alternate on stems. Spiny Sowthistle in Virginia Tech Weed Identification Guide, WeedAlert.com's article on the Spiny Sowthistle, photo of herbarium specimen at Missouri Botanical Garden, collected in Madagascar in 1932, https://en.wikipedia.org/w/index.php?title=Sonchus_asper&oldid=992247265, Short description is different from Wikidata, Taxonbars with automatically added basionyms, Creative Commons Attribution-ShareAlike License, This page was last edited on 4 December 2020, at 07:30. Moderate pest factor. Sonchus oleraceus has hollow stems that exude latex (whitish milk) if damaged. Sonchus asper, or Prickly Sowthistle, is a spring or summer annual herbaceous wildflower, with spiney leaves and yellow flowers and is often considered a weed because of its aggressive spread. The basal leaves form a rosette that may not be present at flowering. Each floret is replaced by an achene with a tuft of silky white hairs. Lower leaves are up to 10 inches long and 3½ inches wide, more spatula shaped with deeper lobes. The seeds spread by wind and water and the plant can tend to take over a site. Spiny Sow Thistle (Sonchus asper): An annual that has bluish-green leaves and stems that emit a milky sap when cut. Sonchus asper: basal auricles of leaves rounded and stalks to flower heads with abundant stipitate glands (vs. S. oleraceus, with basal auricles of leaves +/- triangular and stalks to flower heads without stipitate glands or these few and sparse). The leaves form basal and are deeply lobed. Sonchus asper. Each flower is about 2/3 inch across when fully open, consisting of numerous yellow ray florets. Sonchus oleraceushas hollow stems that exude latex, if damaged. Depending on the local form of the plant, these leaves may be pinnatifid, or they may lack significant lobes along the margins, in which case they are broadly lanceolate or oblanceolate. Large basal leaves and smaller, curved upper leaves have soft, very spiny teeth. Sonchus asper . It is in flower from June to August, and the seeds ripen from July to September. Prickly Sowthistle (Sonchus asper) Description: This plant is a spring or summer annual (usually the former) that becomes 1-3' tall, branching sparingly in the upper half. Margins are spiny and wavy, white mid-vein, large round basal lobes clasping - curled downward, often dark green and glossy. Sonchus asper, the prickly sow-thistle,[2] rough milk thistle,[3] spiny sowthistle,[4] sharp-fringed sow thistle, or spiny-leaved sow thistle, is a widespread plant in the dandelion tribe within the daisy family. Sonchus asper (Linnaeus) Hill, Herb. asper Linnaeus, Sp. Leaves are up to 8 inches long and 2¼ inches across, becoming smaller and more sparse up the central stem. Full sun (6 or more hours of direct sunlight a day). The leaves and stems emit a milky sap when cut. Both the leaves and stems contain a milky solution. Suitable for: light (sandy), medium (loamy) and heavy (clay) soils. The leaves are bluish-green, simple, lanceolate, with wavy and sometimes lobed margins, covered in spines on both the margins and beneath. The stems are hollow and contain hair on only the lower portion. The genus Sonchus includes approximately 60 species, and three of them have become common weeds throughout the world. Its edible leaves make a palatable and nutritious leaf vegetable. Distinguishing Features. Read our Commitment to Diversity | Read our Privacy Statement. The stem is 1-3 feet in height, hollow, glabrous, with prominent longitudinal ribs. The stems are dull green or reddish green, round, and smooth. [5][6], Sonchus asper is native to Europe, North Africa, and western Asia. The leaves are bluish-green, simple, lanceolate, with wavy and sometimes lobed margins, covered in spines on both the margins and beneath. This plant spreads by reseeding itself. Sonchus oleraceus has short taproot and deeply lobed leaves. They tend to be crowded on the stem. asper), the unevenly large-toothed and even lobe-leaved var. In April 2016, about 90% of the S. asper plants infesting a pear orchard had symptomatic with black spots densely distributed on the leaves and stems in D … Females lay eggs on the undersides of leaves, forming up to 270 galls/plant [16]. Reconstrucción y Evolución del Paisaje Vegetal Autóctono de la Zona Urbana y Peri-urbana de la Ciudad de Cochabamba i–v, 1–174. 1: 47. It has also become naturalized on other continents and is regarded as a noxious, invasive weed in many places. The leaves and stems emit a milky sap when cut. Analyses of the nutritional composition of tender leaves of three species of Sonchus ( S . It can be distinguished from Sonchus asper and Sonchus hydrophilus in that they both have stiff and leathery leaves, mostly smooth achenes (fruit) with ribs that are rough to the touch or with hairs. It is often found in lawns, waste places, and roadsides.The size of this plant varies depending on the moisture and fertility of the soil. It is in flower from June to August, and the seeds ripen from July to September. Grows yellow flowers resembling dandelions … Leaves. The upper leaves are more likely to be entire or have shallow lobes. Sonchus asper, or Prickly Sowthistle, is a spring or summer annual herbaceous wildflower, with spiney leaves and yellow flowers and is often considered a weed because of its aggressive spread. Tesis, Universidad Mayor San Simón, Cochabamba, Marticorena, C. & M. Quezada. Common sow thistle has hollow stems that exude latex if damaged. It has a short taproot, and deeply lobed leaves. Sonchus asper (Spiny sowthistle), belonging to the Asteraceae, is a problematic weed in grain crops, orchards as well as turf (Cho et al., 2019). 1769. Basal and lower stem leaves extremely variable, obovate, spatulate, or elliptic, 7-13 × 2-5 cm, undivided or ± irregularly pinnatisect, glabrous, adaxially dark green and ± glossy, base attenuate and ± auriculate, margin usually densely spinulosely dentate, apex acute, acuminate, or obtuse; lateral lobes ± triangular, semiorbicular, or elliptic. Suitable for: light (sandy), medium (loamy) and heavy (clay) soils. form a strategic partnership called N.C. Lower leaves are up to 2 inches wide and to 12 inches long and are somewhat variable in shape, having shallow or deep rounded lobes, occasionally unlobed. This plant can be weedy or invasive according to the authoritative sources noted below.This plant may be known by one or more common names in different places, and some are listed above. Humbert, H. 1923. 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